Environmental issues in Nigeria and how to solve these problems

Nigeria has 200 million in population. The country is popular for its diverse wildlife, lush forests and waters. They are blessed with many natural resources. But, Nigeria is facing many environmental issues. These challenge the way these 200 million people live. Nature problems in Nigeria is a popular topic. But, Nigeria is not effective in addressing them. They haven’t solved the issue in so many years. There are many environmental issues in Nigeria at the moment.

The good thing is it is never too late.

There are many things people can do to help save Nigeria’s nature.

Most of them are easy but require consistency.

What are the 5 major environmental problems and their solutions?

Environmental issues in Nigeria are more than just five main issues.

But, Nigeria needs to tackle these five environmental problems.

This is so Nigeria can get a head start.

These are the five environmental issues in Nigeria.

Some solutions may alleviate them.

But, these will take time and patients.

It needs careful planning.

Air pollution

Air pollution is among many environmental problems.

It is a silent killer among Nigerians.

Studies show that air quality in Nigeria is horrible.

Compared to other countries all over the world with better air.

In addition, air quality monitors are not available.

So, the public does not have alerts when air quality is poor.

This will impact people’s health.

Causes of air pollution

Nigeria is a developing country.

Because of this, it is focusing on its economic growth.

They are building more companies and businesses.

Smokes from vehicles are a cause of polluted air in Nigeria.

Other causes are industrial byproducts and the burning of trash.

Most houses burn fuel that pollutes the air. Many people in Nigeria are doing this.

READ ALSO: List of Oil and Gas Companies in Nigeria (2020)

So, it’s among the major environmental issues in Nigeria.

According to the WHO, 7 million people yearly due to air pollution.

If they solve this environmental problem, it can prevent lung cancer.

It can prevent heart diseases and stroke, as well.

These three are among the top killers of people in Nigeria.

In addition, air pollution doesn’t only affect adult humans.

Unborn babies are harmed, as well.

Published research showed that black carbon was found in fetal placentas.


Experts propose targeting home air pollution causes.

They say that this will be an easy way to solve this environmental problem.

This calls for citizens to use improved cooking stoves in their own homes.

These old cooking stoves use fuels that produce deadly smoke.

Besides, Nigeria should ban old cars because of the added pollution.

People should stop burning their trash, as well.

They should know how to segregate them.

People should stop smoking, as well.

This adds to pollution in the air.

Water pollution

Water pollution in Nigeria is causing problems.

And a quality suffered from Nigeria’s wide industry development.

In addition, marine life and habitat are affected as well.

A pesticide is a major cause of water pollution in Nigeria.

Industrial toxic wastes are sources of water pollution, as well.

Improper water disposal contributes to water pollution.

Soil, construction junk, and sewage particles are other pollutants.

The government should ban ships from dumping wastes in seas as well.

They should ban factories from doing this.

Effects of water pollution

Many environmental issues in Nigeria pose a risk to people’s health.

Water pollution is an example.

Stomach problems are common problems when there is water pollution.

This includes diarrhea and other stomach issues.

For instance, cholera causes outbreaks in Nigerian states.

In addition, other diseases are due to poor water quality.

Water with pollutants like gasoline, coal, tobacco, etc.

That affects people’s reproductive health.

These substances induce cancer.

They are likely to increase a person’s chance of developing cancer.

Pollution in Nigeria doesn’t only affect the environment.

It affects people, as well.

In addition, the increase in Nigeria’s population worsens this.

This doesn’t help solve this environmental problem.

An increase in population equates to a higher carbon footprint.

This means more pollutants across many forms of water in the country.

The more people there are, the more carbon is produced.


Studies show that information and research are not conducted.

Water quality, pollution, and other factors are not distributed.

The government should put the first laws supporting nature.

This should include the protection of water supply and aquatic resources.

In addition, they should create specific laws regarding improved sewage systems.

They should ban the use of poisonous agents.

They should make better pipes that don’t leak.

This is because leaks are major sources of water pollution.

Industrial waste

More countries are resorting to wide industry development.

This is to help boost its economy.

Nigeria is known for its industrial development.

But, this process is not without serious effects.

Over time, wastes from factories accumulate.

Later on, they become one of the many environmental problems.

This country’s population has increased over the past few years.

Over time, more people are cramped within a specific area.

This leads to more residential areas.


This produces a higher number of industrial wastes.

Mechanical shops contribute to this problem as well.

Other car repair shops are causing problems. Large businesses like factories and plants do as well.

Waste management is the main solution when it comes to wastes.

Industrial development is not preventable.

There is no other solution but proper waste disposal.

Lawmakers should put the first strong application of waste management.

This will curb many other environmental issues in Nigeria.

People should know how to throw their wastes.

They should know how to recycle as well.

This is to decrease garbage in the whole country.

Source reduction is the first step in controlling industrial waste.

This means using new, more improved equipment that produces less waste.

Better machines that use less energy are ideal.

In addition, industries should make changes in operations and production.

In addition, people should follow Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.


Waste ponds reduce contaminants and pathogens in wastes.

Products gathered from industrial sources are used for wastewater.

In addition, activated sludge is used to oxidise wastes in the water.

The ponds remove the germs, as well.

When planning future buildings, people should consider the environment.

They should think of better ways to prevent pollution.

This will ensure continuous, enhanced waste management.

In addition, industrial waste handling should be the utmost priority.


The Nigerian Conservation Foundation reports that most forests are gone.

This is due to the loss of forests.

It is one of the most pressing environmental problems in Nigeria.

This is responsible for various environmental problems.

This includes soil erosion, wildlife destruction, and other issues.

Trees are cut down so much, and there are no more left.

In addition, when trees are removed, carbon is formed.

This contributes to higher carbons in the air.

We all know how bad this is for global warming.

These pose problems for Nigeria’s economy and quality of life.

Fuelwood is the main reason for the removal of trees in Nigeria.

Most Nigerian states rely on kerosene as a source of energy.

These are both for residential and commercial use.

Cookstoves, ovens and other kitchen machines use fuelwood.

Other machines outside the house use this as well.

Nigerians use a lot of energy.

So, they resort to the removal of trees.

Sustainable forest management is key to this environmental problem.

The government should increase tree planting to help the forests.

Illegal logging should be avoided, as well.

Policies supporting the planting of trees should be prioritised as well.

The government should encourage the reduction of charcoal use.

People should decrease the use of fuelwood as well.

This will lessen the demand for cutting down trees.

Preserving diversity in nature should be encouraged in its citizens.

In addition, lawmakers are responsible for reinforcing campaigns.

This is to reduce both mass and carbon footprints.

Climate change

Climate change is not just a Nigerian environmental problem.

It is a worldwide challenge all countries are all fighting against.

Climate change is due to many factors.

Other environmental issues in Nigeria are as well.

Many practices led to the worsening of climate change.

All countries are contributors.

These include poor management of resources.

Environmental problems like air pollution contribute to global warming.

Waste products from factories produce harmful substances in the air.

Other household practices such as the burning of coal, produce this.

These all contribute to the overall increase in the earth’s temperature.

Nigeria is quite vulnerable to climate change’s effects.

This will affect various livelihood sources.

These include fisheries and agriculture.

In addition, they become more vulnerable to natural disasters.

These are floods, rainfalls, sea-level rise, as well as land degradation.

What are the common issues within Nigeria environment?

We discussed the major problems in Nigeria’s environment.

Many issues need solutions.

These are not immediate environmental problems but are big enough.

So, the government, lawmakers, and citizens should act on this.



Every year, floods cause bad problems in Nigeria’.

This is due to rising sea levels leading to heavy rains.

In addition, it is due to improper waste disposal by factories.

Household wastes are part of this.

Nigeria will suffer from economic and health issues from the flood.

This is if they don’t have proper and effective disaster management.

Floods are only symptoms of nature’s issues in Nigeria.

Environmental issues in Niger delta

The Niger Delta is a river made of sediment deposition.

It’s one of the largest wetlands in the whole African region.

At present, there are many environmental problems in the delta.

These include oil spills and fish population depletion.

Others are invasive species and gas flare.

Oil Spills

Oil spillages don’t only impact the Niger delta.

But, it impacts the whole ecosystem.

Sad to say, this phenomenon is common in Nigeria.

As of today, Nigeria continues to suffer from massive oil spills.

Besides this, soil fertility is affected.

So, the livelihoods of the people are suffering from this.

In particular, oil spillages cause great harm to mangrove forestry.

The mangrove ecosystem is essential in protecting shorelines.

These protect against disasters and calamities.

These mangrove plants are a huge source of wood for many citizens.

Oil spills are harming people’s health.

The oil contaminates the country’s major drinking water sources.

The marine habitat is affected as well.

This could harm people when they ingest poisoned fish and other sea creatures.

Oil poisons the fish in the waters.

Fishers who rely on fish for livelihood are suffering.

Oil production makes a lot of money for Nigeria.

But, it harms nature and people.

Oil spills, don’t only damage waters.

These oil spills harm the air as well.

When they are in the water, oils evaporate and affect air.

In addition, these oils contaminate the soil, which affects its fertility.

So, livelihoods depending on farmlands are distressed.

Fish population depletion

Nigeria is famous for its diverse wildlife and aquatic life.

But, fish death is a major environmental problem in Nigeria.

Oil spills are responsible for the extinction of fish across Niger delta.

In addition, illegal fishing is another human-made cause.

Last but not least, climate change affects the fish population.

As the water temperature increases, fish’s houses are destroyed.

In effect, many fish die.

They don’t have a strong and clear strategy to combat this issue.

Nigerians continue to suffer from a decrease in the fish population.

Invasive species

Water hyacinths invade a particular water environment.

They are invasive or pollutant species.

These plants grow in polluted waters.

Then, they, later on, compete with other water creatures for nutrients and sunlight.

They grow so much that they outnumber other creatures in the water.

So, when their growth becomes intense, other species suffer.

They are stealing nutrients and energy from the other fish and creatures.

This poses a huge threat to the marine environment.

People’s livelihoods are affected.

Other invasive species include weeds.

Other invasive alien plant species belong to this as well.

But, water hyacinths are the causes of pollution in Nigeria.

In the end, they pose many environmental problems.

Gas flare

Exporting oil contributes to a large chunk in Nigeria’s revenue.

For years, Nigeria has supplied oil to countries all over the world.

Gas flaring practices have negative impacts on the environment.

When the gas or coal is burned, the oil is extracted.

This process is responsible for massive carbon dioxide.

Many do not know, but this causes many environmental problems worldwide.

When humans breathe in these gases, their lungs are irritated.

In addition, these gases are cancerous.

They cause cancer all over the body, not just the lungs.

These gases change the colour of the rain as well.

Others know this as acid rain in Nigeria.

This is harmful to crops and animals.

In addition, products from gas flaring remain suspended in the air.

What are the causes of environmental degradation in Nigeria?

This is one of the major environmental problems in Nigeria.

This is the product of the many bad practices in Nigeria.

It is a state of destruction of various components.

These are elements such as soil, air, and water.

This includes other natural resources, as well.

These are animals, wildlife, and rainforests.


Pollution in Nigeria is the major culprit.

It’s one of the most pressing environmental problems.

Any type of pollution continues to grow in most places.

So, contributing to gradual environmental degradation.

This includes air, water, oil, as well as noise pollution.

All of which are severe environmental problems in Nigeria.

Pollution stems from poor and improper waste disposal.

These can be either solid or liquid wastes.

It doesn’t only offend the senses but the environment as well.

Countless contagious diseases are related to pollution.

These include dysentery, typhoid, malaria, and other diseases.

So, what’s left is countless environmental problems in Nigeria.

Ozone layer depletion

Several kilometres above sea level is the ozone.

The ozone layer serves as a protective layer from the sun’s harmful rays.

In humans, these harmful UV rays cause deadly skin cancers.

They disturb aquatic life as well.

This changes the food chain and decreases diversity in the waters.

This is among the major environmental problems in Nigeria.

Climate change

Changes in climate pose an unstable habitat for most living things.

Tons of factors contribute to climate change.

Some of them are different types of pollution in Nigeria.

The environmental issues in Nigeria include air, water, and oil pollution.

Slowly, these lead to the worsening of climate change.

Over time, the earth warms.

This melts the ice in other parts of the globe.

This makes summers even hotter.

This will dry out the land and plants as well.

People who rely on farming are affected.

In addition, these gases contribute to this environmental problem.

These are coming from plants, factories, household cooking, mining, etc.

They worsen global warming.

Land degradation

There are many environmental problems in Nigeria.

This includes land degradation.

The desert of most agricultural lands leads to degradation.

This happens when the lands are disturbed so much.

This is due to man-made activities as well as other bad practices.

Improper resources management destroyed Nigeria’s resources.

An increase in the number of people doesn’t help either.

Land conversion for residential use contributes to this issue as well.

People should know how to use resources and take care of them.

They shouldn’t use them just because they’re available.

They should think about how they can stop draining nature.

Environmental reporting

Poor reporting of Nigeria’s current state contributes to problems.

This is only indirect.

Reports about Nigeria’s environment come with some dilemmas.

Disclosure regarding the Nigerian environmental state is not enough.


In addition, accounting and reporting are not enough.

Most reports lack important data.

These could help inform the public regarding the country’s current state.

This is an obvious cause of one of the major environmental problems.

If more studies inform people how bad the state is, more people can help.

The government can help, as well.

If people are not aware, they won’t do anything about the environmental issues in Nigeria.

So, if reports are not complete, solutions won’t come.

Environmental problems in Nigeria are human-made.

So, the key to solving these issues depends on its people.

Nigeria needs stronger policies that help decrease the use of resources.

They need laws that rescue most of the damage.

These should include their waters, lands, and forestries.

Simple laws such as banning the use of old cars will help—other laws like getting rid of old cooking stoves as well.

In addition, all of these policies won’t work without strict application.

These will come from authorities and compliance by its citizens.

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